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Threads in Java - Volatile keyword (Part 9)


If we mark a variable as "volatile", it means it will be read from the computer's main memory instead of CPU cache and every write will be to the computer's main memory only and not only in CPU cache.

When multiple threads operate on non-volatile variables, each thread may copy variables from the main memory to CPU cache for performance reasons. Let us say I have a computer with more than one CPU, each thread may run on a different CPU and hence deal with different CPU caches.
source: Jenkov

With non-volatile variables, there is no guarantee that the data in each CPU cache is the latest (updated) one. Hence, different threads may see different values of the same variable which can cause severe errors.

On the other hand, if we declare the shared variable as volatile then it will always be read from the main memory.

The problem with threads not seeing the latest value of a variable because it has not yet been written back to main memory by another thread is called a "visibility" problem. The updates of one thread are not visible to other threads.

Full volatile visibility guarantee

The full visibility guarantee is as follows
  • If Thread A writes to a volatile variable and Thread B subsequently reads the same variable, then all variables visible to Thread A will also be visible to Thread B before writing the volatile variable even after Thread B has read it already.
  • If Thread A reads a volatile variable, then all variables visible to Thread A when reading the volatile variable will also be re-read from the main memory.
public class Calendar {
    private int year;
    private int month
    private volatile int day;

    private void update(int year, int month, int day){
        this.years  = years;
        this.months = months;
        this.days   = days;

In the above code, only day is volatile and when a value is written to days, the values of years and months are also written to the main memory.

Happens before guarantee

The JVM and CPU can reorder the instructions in a program provided the semantic meaning remains same. They do this for performance reasons.
For e.g.

int a = 1;
int b = 2;


These instructions can be reordered as -

int a = 1;

int b = 2;

Here the semantic meaning is not changed. But this reordering sometimes present some challenges as shown in below code -

public class MyClass {
    private int years;
    private int months
    private volatile int days;

    public void update(int years, int months, int days){
        this.years  = years;
        this.months = months;
        this.days   = days;

When the value is written to days, the new values for months and years will also be written to the main memory. But what if JVM reorders the instructions like this -

public void update(int years, int months, int days){
    this.days   = days;
    this.months = months;
    this.years  = years;

This time the values for months and years are written to main memory before the new values for these variables are written. The new values are thus not properly made visible to other threads.

To solve this problem, volatile keyword gives "happens-before" guarantee. This means -

  • If the reads/writes originally occurred before the write to the volatile variable, the reads/writes to other variables cannot be reordered after a write to a volatile variable.
  • If reads/writes originally occurred after the reads of the volatile variable, reads/writes to other variables cannot be reordered to occur before read of a volatile variable.
If two threads are both reading and writing to a shared variable, only volatile is not enough. We should use synchronized block around the critical section. Or we can use many atomic datatypes in java.util.concurrent package such as AtomicInteger or AtomicLong.

Performance considerations

Since the use of volatile involves operation in the main memory instead of CPU cache, it is expensive. This also prevents reordering which is a normal performance technique. Thus, we should use volatile only when we absolutely need to enforce visibility of variables.


Congratulations!! 🙋 today we discussed the concepts of volatile variable and its applications. I hope you enjoyed this post.

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